I. Vocabulary and Structure (10 points 1 point for each item)
1. Six out of every ten prisoners in chains are black which is ________ the chain gangs call up images of slavery in centuries gone by.
A、where B、when C、what D、why
2. Einstein claimed that matter and energy are interchangeable ________ there is no “absolute” time and space.
A、so that B、even if C、in case D、in order
3. The next generation of robots will have a sense of _______.
A、feel B、touch C、contact D、grasp
4. Scientists believe that you usually ________ to one idea at a time.
A、attend B、tend C、pretend D、extend
5. From a systems point of ________ problems have multiple causes.
A、sight B、idea C、perspective D、view
6. In a sense men of this kind begin not so much with a musical theme ______ with a completed composition.
A、but B、than C、as D、that
7. To these now familiar facts a number of further facts may be ______ some of them only recently recognized.
A、shown B、proposed C、derived D、added
8. He argues that euthanasia doesn’t take into ______ that there are ways of caring for the dying.
A、opinion B、thought C、mind D、account
9. Two-thirds of the nation’s voters still identify themselves ______ Democrats of Republicans.
A、for B、as C、by D、over
10. You must push away the many temptations that are always present ______ your schedule is useless.
A、and B、but C、or D、for
II. Close Test (10 points 1 points for each item)
At the moment some 170000 young people throughout Britain are suffering what is potentially the most tense and anxious time of their lives. That is the number of students currently ___11__ to sit for their A-levels Examinations which __12__ whether a student proceeds smoothly on to the next rung (梯级) of the academic ladder or __13__ six years of work at secondary-school will be spent in the bitter disappointment of failure.
__14__ the medical “stress-charts” examinations rank __15__ behind a death in the family a divorce or even the loss of a job __16__ the symptoms of anxiety are all the most weakening because __17__ before the event rather than after it and may in themselves be enough to bring __18__ the student’s worst fears-failing.
The most crucial point __19__ pre-examination stress is that it is something the student catches from other people. He or she is not after all the only person with an interest __20__ the examination result.
11. A、are preparing B、prepare C、preparing D、to prepare
12. A、will decide B、has decided C、decide D、to decide
13. A、whether B、how C、what D、why
14. A、At B、In C、Above D、Within
15. A、everywhere B、nowhere C、anywhere D、somewhere
16. A、thus B、for C、but D、or
17. A、it is B、they are C、which is D、which are
18. A、back B、along C、about D、through
19. A、about B、behind C、from D、on
20. A、of B、in C、on D、with
III. Reading Comprehension (30 points 2points for each item)
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
To meet strict air-pollution standards scheduled to take effect over the next few years oil companies are racing to make their fossil fuels as pollution free as the alternatives chiefly methanol (甲醇) and natural gas. Last week Atlantic Richfield the eighth largest U.S. oil company said it had developed just such a fuel: a cleaner-burning gas that the company claims will cut toxic emissions (气体的排放) nearly 50.
If making a better gas is so easy why hasn’t anyone done if before The simple answer: cleaner fuels are more expensive. ARCO’s new gas will cost more at the pump than standard gas. If ARCO simply passed those charges on to its customers they would soon find new places to refuel. But the Los Angeles based company knows that California is about to set new fuel standards that will require all oil companies in the state to reformulate their gas or switch to alternative fuels. ARCO has no plans to sell ECX until it is ordered to meet the new standards which will take effect soon.
Producing cleaner gas is a matter of improving the refining process. Gas is a mixture of as many as 100 carbon-based compounds obtained from crude oil by selectively distilling i.e.getting rid of various hydrocarbons (碳氢化合物). ARCO’s goal was to reduce the concentration of pollutant elements. To make ECX the company’s chemists have to add compounds that cost more to refine.
The cleaner gas has advantages over fuels like methanol M85 a mixture of 15 gas and 85 alcohol which costs 25 cents to 40 cents more than standard gas. Unlike methanol ECX can be used in any car without mechanical adjustments or loss of power. As a result the development could stop the massive switchover to alternative fuels. Switching to such fuels as methanol and natural gas would require mechanical adjustments of the millions of cars built each year and installing new pumps and tanks at 200000 US service stations. It would also end the auto-fuel monopoly the oil industry has enjoyed for nearly a century.
21. Oil companies are competing with each other to develop ______.
A、cleaner fossil fuels B、alternatives for gas
C、pollution-free natural gas D、alternatives for methanol
22. The underlined word “toxic” (paragraph 1) can best be replaced by ______.
23. If ARCO sold ECX now its consumers would ______.
A、ask it to reformulate the new fuel B、accept the product without complaint
C、refuse to pay the extra charges D、turn to other oil companies
24. ECX is more expensive than standard fuels because it ______.
A、contains more hydrocarbons B、needs more crude oil to produce
C、costs more in the refining process D、saves more energy in application
25. The writer seems to believe that ECX will help to _______.
A、develop the oil industry B、improve the auto technology
C、establish a diversified auto-fuel market D、increase the output of alternative fuels
Question 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
Anyone who has a fat friend or who is perhaps himself fat knows only too well now little provision our society makes for such people. Even the daily round provides numerous problems. There are few pieces of clothing that can be bought seats in cinemas or theatres are so uncomfortable that few fat people attend
them. Fortunately good performances are rare. Home furniture is also hopelessly inadequate. Then there are the problems of having a bath the standard size of bath just does not allow a fat person to take up a horizontal (水平的) position but demands him to stand in it. In today’s world however these are minor worries in a culture where slimness is in fashion and all things desirable come to the person with an attractively thin and delicate figure. Especially in women this attribute is a must if they are to compete in the marriage market.
In fact slimness is not necessarily either an ideal condition from a physiological point of view or a natural characteristic. But this is of little comfort to the fat man or women living in our present society. This fashion has been just another aspect of the desire for conformity (一致) we have charts showing correct weights for each height and there are whole counters in many shops given over to the display of non-fattening foods. The fat person is doubly unfortunate in that be cannot hide his non-conformity unlike so many of us who have perhaps more subtle forms of eccentricity (怪癖). In those cases where fatness is the result of over-eating it is of course a reaction to some form of inner conflict and a much less harmful one than say drug abuse. Where the over weight is due to some disorder of the body the fat person is an all-round loser for not only has he a physical illness to cope with but is mocked for having it by many people who should know better.
Perhaps fashion will eventually change to allow a fat frame to become acceptable but at present it seems that the pencil-slim fashion models are in safe jobs.
26. According to the writer our society fails to ______.
A、prevent people from getting fat B、help fat people to lose weight
C、recognize the needs of fat people D、inform people of weight standards
27. In today’s world the biggest problem for fat women is their difficulty in ______.
A、finding an ideal husband B、buying suitable clothes
C、building and attractive figure D、competing in the job market
28. It is of little comfort to fat people that ______.
A、slimness is not always an ideal condition
B、slimness is only a fashion at present
C、fatness is not always a physiological problem
D、fatness is only a natural characteristic
29. A fat person is unfortunate because ______.
A、he has nowhere to hide himself B、he has no one to turn to for help
C、he is unable to cope with his illness D、he is unable to conceal his fatness
30. The writer’s tone can best be described as one of ______.
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
Appreciation of sculpture(雕塑) depends upon the ability to respond to form in three dimensions. That is perhaps why sculpture has been described as the most difficult of all arts certainly it is more difficult than the arts which involve appreciation of flat forms shape in only first distinguishes only two-dimensional shape it cannot judge distances depths. Later for its personal safely and practical needs it has to develop (partly by means of touch) the ability to judge roughly three-dimensional distances.But having satisfied the requirements of practical necessity most people go no further. Though they may attain considerable accuracy in perceiving flat form they do not make the further intellectual and emotional effort needed to perceive form in its full spatial (空间的) existence.
This is what the sculptor (雕塑家) must do. He must think of and use form in its full spatial completeness. He gets the solid shape as it were inside his head ? he thinks of it whatever its size as if he were holding it completely in his hand. He mentally visualizes a complex form from all round itself he knows while he looks at one side what the other side is like he identifies him self with its center of gravity its mass its weight.
And the sensitive observer of sculpture must also learn to feel shape simply as shape not as description. He must for example perceive an egg as a simple single solid shape quite apart from its significance as food or from the literary idea that it will become a bird a cat a heart a tree a gate a book a bone. From these he can go on to appreciate more complex forms or combinations of several forms.
31. Sculpture is regarded as the most difficult of all arts because it can be appreciated only by people who ______.
A、can judge roughly three-dimensional distances
B、can perceive form in its full spatial existence
C、have attained accuracy in perceiving flat form
D、have met the requirements of practical necessity
32. A “form-blind” man is unable to ______.
A、judge two-dimensional distances
B、see objects clearly at a distance
C、distinguish two-dimensional form
D、respond to form in three dimensions
33. The writer implies that the sensitive observer______.
A、may have trouble appreciating sculpture
B、may get solid shapes inside his head
C、prefers complex sculpture
D、feels shape simply as shape
34. The underlined phrase “the literary idea” (paragraph 3) can best be replaced by ______.
A、the imagination B、the implication
C、the simple fact D、the natural law
35. According to the writer the sculptor can actually _______.
A、get the solid shape in his head B、put the solid shape in his hand
C、perceive description as shape D、fell shape simply as shape